||Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for
the 21st Century
By Howard E. Gardner
Reviewed by Clifford J. Morris
In 1983, a Harvard psychologist, Howard Gardner, wrote Frames of Mind: The
Theory of Multiple Intelligences, a book he believed he was writing predominantly to
enlighten mainstream psychologists, not educators. At that time, he proposed that the
psychological construct intelligence should be measured in more ways than
simply through the dry statistical and analytical lenses of the widely accepted logical
and linguistic IQ test.
Gardner questioned the classical belief that human beings could have only one
mode of representation about the world; instead, he suggested that a more
pluralistic viewpoint for measuring mental functioning ought to be addressed a
variety of intelligent ways of thinking. His intelligences were linguistic, logical-
mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal and intrapersonal. In
1996, he added the naturalist intelligence to his list.
In this book, Gardner continues his argument for many forms of intelligences. The
strength of Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st
Century lies in its core, namely chapters 9-11, describing and justifying the
ways in which MI theory can be applied to scholastic and wider world settings.
Gardner's line of reasoning is persuasive, not because of the extensiveness of his
information, and his realization that certain mainstream institutions may encounter
difficulty implementing his multiple approaches to understanding, but because
his script, as always, is vibrant and lucid enough to hold the readers attention.
If there is a weakness in the book, it lies within the opening and closing chapters.
Here Gardner stumbles somewhat in his attempt to address the authentic ownership of
intelligence. He suggests that intelligence is too important to be left to the
intelligence testers. There are some interesting calls for greater human
individualization. But the details given to intellectual renovators is inconsequential
and, save for intellectual generalities, slightly outdated; long-standing MI supporters
will find little in these two chapters that they did not already know.
Nevertheless, Intelligence Reframed is a delightful and entertaining read,
beautifully written by one of the best authors in the field of developmental cognitive
science. Gardner has, once again, provided readers with a significant and well-articulated
text that should be widely read, discussed and implemented by numerous educators. As with
his previous books (18), detailed reference notes have been conveniently located at the
end of the book so that the flow of the text is continuous. The four appendices are an
excellent reference for the more interested reader. Gardner clearly delineates and
reframes the original 1983 picture of his many kinds of minds image, updating
the reader with numerous fresh viewpoints from the standpoint of cognitive development.
Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, New
York, 1999; ISBN 0-465-02610-9; $27.50 (292 pages); Basic Books.
Clifford J. Morris (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a retired Ontario classroom teacher, and
editor of the MI-News, an e-mail/web site newsletter about the theoretical and practical
applications of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.
||The Heart of Learning: Spirituality in Education
by Steven Glazer
Reviewed by Michael Reist
We live in an age when technology is influencing every human activity even
teaching. We are told that the computer will be the salvation of the student and the
teacher. The classroom has seen the introduction of many forms of technology
beginning with the book itself and continuing with, in the electronic age, the calculator,
the television and the personal computer. What most good teachers have never forgotten is
that, at its core, teaching is ultimately a spiritual activity. Learning is about becoming
more human, more humane, and the thing that makes us most human is our spiritual
In the past 30 or 40 years, we have witnessed a huge decline in the power and influence
of organized religion. What has not waned, and what many observers feel has even
increased, is our sense of spirituality and its importance in our lives.
The Heart of Learning is a collection of essays by educators and thinkers who do
not identify themselves with any particular religious tradition but believe spirituality
to be at the centre of what teachers do. Writers such as Parker Palmer, Jeremy Hayward and
Bell Hooks write about the need to revive a sense of the sacred in teaching.
John Taylor Gatto, Ron Miller and Joan Halifax offer critiques of the current system of
education and give alternative visions of a more humane pedagogy.
The 20th century has seen a rise in the concept of the learner as a social
unit who must be trained for his or her place in the economy. Ron Miller, in his essay on
holistic education, quotes Colin Scott as saying in his 1908 book Social Education,
It is not primarily for his own individual good that the child is taken from his
free and wandering life of play. It is for what society can get out of him, whether of a
material or spiritual kind, that he is sent to school.
How much of this attitude is still implicit in education policy today? When we talk
about the benefits of producing a competitive work force for the global
economy, is it for the benefit of the child or the corporate sector? In contrast to
this view, Miller says, We as parents and educators...need to confront the
mechanization and standardization of childrens souls in a very fierce way.
We see this mechanization and standardization making its deepest inroads today in
testing and curriculum. Whatever benefits these may have, this book is an important
reminder that we teach students not courses and that our highest goal is not higher
achievement scores but the formation of better people. If what gets measured is what gets
taught, then we are in trouble because the enrichment of the spirit is something no
computer or test can measure. The Heart of Learning is an important book for those
teachers everywhere who are valiantly fanning the spark of the spirit in children
children who live in a world that often seems to value only what can be counted and
The Heart of Learning: Spirituality in Education, New York, 1999; ISBN
0-87477-955-3; $22.95 paper (265 pages); Penguin Putnam.
Michael Reist is head of English and Modern Languages at Robert F. Hall Catholic
Secondary School in Caledon East.
||Teach Art 3:
A Visual Arts Curriculum Guide
Reviewed by Mary Storey
The Grade 3 teachers of this province are certainly fortunate. Teach Art 3
is a new product on the market, a package of materials that helps teach visual arts. Not
only will it save teachers time in preparing effective lessons, it will assist them
in the proper methodology of teaching and evaluating visual art.
The inviting package of materials includes a CD-ROM, a box of art cards and a binder of
teacher lesson plans, tracking sheets and resource materials. This all comes bundled in a
canvas bag for easy carrying.
The CD-ROM contains a teachers desk scenario with many clickable parts. Within
the desk area are 40 lesson plans that can be rearranged to create long-range plans for a
balanced visual arts curriculum for a complete year. Each lesson plan is detailed using
the expectations of the Ontario curriculum: arts and video of a teacher teaching the
lesson and samples of student products. There are also sample letters to parents. The
lessons are based on construction, printmaking, painting, drawing, sculpture, fabric arts
and technographic arts.
Other background information on the disk includes quotes from children talking about
art, information on multiple intelligences, biographies of artists to accompany the
lessons, reasons for teaching visual arts, a list of resource books and lists of materials
required to teach the various lessons.
The binder contains the lesson plans, principal activities, assessment strategies,
self-assessment sheets, tracking sheets and overhead projector acetates.
Although this resource is aligned with the Grade 3 expectations of the Ontario
curriculum, it is useful for more than one grade and can be cross-curricular. It is
one-stop shopping for lesson plans and all related materials for a complete and effective
year of visual arts teaching in Ontario.
Teach Art 3: A Visual Arts Curriculum Guide can be obtained through
www.brain-works.com or Brainworks Inc., 342 Millard Ave., Newmarket ON L3Y 1Z4, phone
1-800-504-7108; price $189.95 plus shipping.
Mary Storey is the information technology consultant for the York Region
District School Board.
||Teachers Partner 2000
Reviewed by Patricia Bland
Teacher's Partner 2000 is a self-loading program on CD-ROM that integrates
planning, assessment and reporting formats and includes the Ontario elementary report card
and ministry expectations for Grades 1 through 8.
Ontario educators devote precious non-teaching time to writing detailed plans,
reflective report card comments, four-level rubrics and marking grids. Some inventive
educators meet the challenge by designing aid programs with a variety of software. One
such ingenious teacher, Ed Jackson, demonstrates his Level Four ability
through a self-designed program, Teachers Partner 2000, a productivity suite. This
licensed program for educators executes a self-loading, independent Microsoft Access file
and associated databases.
Teachers Partner includes a wide selection of planning and reporting
venues, including a template of the ministry report card with active fields that link up
to comment databanks. Jackson, a part-time Grade 6 teacher from the Halton Catholic Board,
spends most of his non-teaching time updating, maintaining and promoting his software
Originally designed as a personal planning and reporting tool, Teachers Partner
was shared with other grateful educators, which led to Jacksons small business,
Leading Education. The productivity suite is contained in one CD-ROM with hyperlink
navigation and all ministry expectations for Grades 1 through 8. Shared student and
comment data must be transferred through a standardized process on three-inch disks.
A licensed package includes tailored programs with your board's logo and preferred
report card comments. Networked computer systems can be loaded with the program, and
upgrade patches are available for licensed users. The program is built with strictly
defined field formats, making it awkward to import or export with other database software.
Jackson provides in-services and generously addresses all levels of questions in person
If your current methods of reporting, planning or assessment are not meeting your
expectations, you may want to choose Teachers Partner 2000 as a framework for
Teachers Partner 2000 is available from Leading Education (www.leadinged.com),
52 Moffat Cres., Aurora, ON L4G 4Z9; 905-841-3758; individual licence $79, less for
Patricia Bland is a Grades 2 and 3 teacher and computer site administrator for
the Limestone District School Board and an elementary director with the Educational
Computing Organization of Ontario.
||The Canadian Encyclopedia: Year 2000 Edition
by James Marsh
Reviewed by Christopher Ball
When this tome landed on my desk I had two immediate reactions. Ha! People
say the book is dead and then, Well, maybe theyre right, when it comes
to reference works.
It really pains me to pan a brave Canadian effort, but the print edition of this
publication leaves me cold. As a professional librarian I value the information contained
between the covers of this 2,572 page work, but I would hesitate to inflict it upon a high
Its fine, almost microscopic font is very hard on the eyes. I was on my second pass
through its pages before I realized that there were a few small black and white
illustrations here and there. The generation raised on CD based tools and the internet is
not going to endure this item gladly.
In fact, the CD edition of this very title is a fantastic, entertaining and colourful
everything this book is not.
In fairness, not everyone has a multimedia computer, and I commend James Marsh for his
effort to publish an affordable, high-value publication. Adding colour would have
increased both the cost and the size, with a possible loss of information in the mix.
You might argue that the function of an encyclopedia is not to be entertaining, but to
inform. However, we are told that ours is the age of information and this being the case,
I would entertain other options.
If you are a school librarian, then I would say that this title should be on your
shelves. Unfortunately for Ontarios francophone schools, neither CD or print version
is available in French, which seems strange indeed for a Canadian encyclopedia.
The information in this encyclopedia is accurate, up-to-date, complete and Canadian.
Otherwise, well, its like back bacon without the smell and the sizzle
Canadian experience, but missing something.
The Canadian Encylopedia; McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, 1999; ISBN
0-7710-2099-6. Widely available in bookstores. $64.99.
Christopher Ball manages the College library and archives.